Global Tuberculosis Report 2023

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Global Tuberculosis Report 2023

The WHO Global Tuberculosis Report 2023 provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic and of progress in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease at global, regional and country levels. The 2023 edition of the report is as usual based on data gathered by WHO from national ministries of health in annual rounds of data collection. In 2023, 192 country and 99% of the world`s population cover for data collection.

Key facts of TB report

  • A total of 1.3 million people died from TB in 2022 worldwide.
  • TB is the second leading infectious killer after COVID-19.
  • In 2022, an estimated 10.6 million people fell ill with TB worldwide.
  • 80% of total patient are treated and cure.
  • 27% of world cases are found in India. India has maximum number of patients in the world.
  • 24 March is the world TB Day.

TB incidence

 Total number of cases reported in last 13 year.

About TB

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that most often affects the lungs and is caused by a type of bacteria. It spread through the air when infected people cough, sneeze or spit. Tuberculosis is preventable and curable. In certain country the BCG vaccine is given to babies and children to prevent TB. The vaccine prevents TB outside of the lungs but not in the lungs.

Symptoms

  • Prolonged cough (sometimes with blood)
  • Chest pain
  • Weakness and weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Fever and night sweats

The symptoms people get depends on where in the body TB becomes active. While TB usually affects the lungs, it also affects the kidneys, brain, spine and skin.

Prevention

Follow these steps for prevent from TB.

  • Seek medical attention if you have symptoms like prolonged cough, fever and unexplained weight loss as early treatment for TB can help stop the spread of disease and improve your chance of recovery.
  • If prescribed treatment to prevent TB, complete the full course.
  • If you have TB, practice good hygiene when coughing, including avoiding contact with other people and wearing a mask, covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing and disposing of sputum and used tissue properly.

Treatment

Tuberculosis disease is treated with antibiotics. Treatment is recommended for both TB infection and disease.

The most common antibiotics used are:

  • Isoniazid
  • Rifampin
  • Pyrazinamide
  • Ethambutol
  • Streptomycin

These medications need to be taken daily for 4-6 months. It is dangerous to stop the medications early or without medical advice.

Impact

Tuberculosis mostly affects adults in their most productive years. However, all age groups are at risk. Over 80% of cases and deaths are in low and middle income countries (developing nation).

TB occurs in every part of the world. In 2022, the largest number of new TB cases occurred in South-East Asian region (46%), followed by the African Region (23%) and Western Pacific (18%).

Five countries have more than half (56.8) of cases of TB.

 

Global TB report and India

India accounts for 27% of the total TB cases in the world. Nearly 28.2 lakhs people got TB in India in 2022. The report noted two positive trends for India.

  • There was an increase in reporting of TB cases crossing even the pre- pandemic high with 24.2 lakh cases in 2022.
  • The coverage of treatment for the infection increased to 80%.

Mortality due to TB in India

A sudden drop in mortality due to TB was noted in the 2023 report. India`s TB mortality dropped from 4.94 lakhs in 2021 to 3.31 lakhs in 2022. This resulted in a reduction in India`s contribution towards global mortality from 36% in the previous years to 26% in 2022.

India`s TB elimination target

India has set a target of 2025 for eliminating TB in the country. The national strategic plan 2017-25 sets the target of no more than 44 new TB cases per lakh population by 2025. The program also aims to reduce the mortality to 3 deaths per lakh population by 2025.

Government steps to control TB.

Government launched Prathan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyan. It`s an initiative of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Ni-kshay Mitra Initiative: It is to ensure additional diagnostic, nutritional and vocational support to those on TB treatment.

Ni-kshay Poshan Yojana: It provides Rs 500 support through direct benefit transfer to the patients.

TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign.

            

Conclusion

In 2014 and 2015, all WHO and UN Member States committed to ending the global TB epidemic by 2030. In 2022, there was an encouraging recovery in the number of people being diagnosed with TB and treated. Ending the global TB epidemic requires that the new and reaffirmed commitments made at the second UN high level meeting on TB in September 2023 are urgently translated into action.

Intern

Author Since: November 22, 2023