ZAIKA VIRUS AND THEIR OUTBREAKS

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Date- 09/11/2023

According to World Health Organization(WHO) Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus first
identified in Uganda in 1947 in a Rhesus macaque monkey followed by evidence of infection
and disease in humans in other African countries in the 1950s.

In outbreaks over the last decade infection was found to be associated with
increased incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome. When Zika virus emerged in the Americas,
with a large epidemic in Brazil in 2015, an association between Zika virus infection and
microcephaly (smaller than normal head size) was first described; there were similar findings
in French Polynesia upon retrospective review. From February to November 2016, WHO
declared a Public Health Emergency Of International Concern (PHEIC) regarding
microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus, and the causal link between Zika
virus and congenital malformations was soon confirmed (1,2). Outbreaks of Zika virus disease
were identified throughout most of the Americas and in other regions with established Aedes
aegypti mosquitos. Infections were detected in travelers from active transmission areas and
sexual transmission was confirmed as an alternate route of Zika virus infection.

  • SYMPTOMS:-

Most people infected with Zika virus do not develop symptoms. Among those who do, they
typically start 3–14 days after infection, are generally mild including rash, fever,
conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise and headache, and usually last for 2–7 days.
These symptoms are common to other arboviral and non-arboviral diseases; thus, the
diagnosis of Zika virus infection requires laboratory to confirmed.

Zika Virus FAQs: DRS Medical Associates: Primary Care Physicians

  • ZIKA VIRUS IN INDIA:-

On 8th July 2021, a Zika virus infection was laboratory confirmed in a resident of Kerela state.
This represents the first Zika Virus disease case ever reported from Kerela and India.

The Zika virus is slowly spreading in India. An INDIAN COUNCIL OF MEDICAL
RESERCH(ICMR) study last year had found 64 cases in 1,475 samples, and the presence of
Zika virus is now confirmed in Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Telangana, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Punjab and Delhi.

  • TREATMENTS:-

There is no specific treatment available for Zika virus infection or disease.
People with symptoms such as rash, fever or joint pain should get plenty of rest, drink fluids,
and treat symptoms with antipyretics and/or analgesics. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs should be avoided until dengue virus infections are ruled out because of bleeding risk.
If symptoms worsen, patients should seek medical care and advice.

Zika virus - Wikipedia

Pregnant women living in areas with Zika transmission or who develop symptoms of Zika virus
infection should seek medical attention for laboratory testing, information, counselling and
other clinical care.

  • Key Points:-

1.) Zika virus is transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes, which bite mostly during the
day.

2.) Most people with Zika virus infection do not develop symptoms; those who do typically
have symptoms including rash, fever, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise and
headache that last for 2–7 days.

3.) Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause infants to be born with microcephaly and
other congenital malformations as well as preterm birth and miscarriage.

What is Zika and where did the virus come from?

4.) Zika virus infection is associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathy and myelitis
in adults and children.

5.) In February 2016, WHO declared Zika-related microcephaly a Public Health Emergency of
International Concern (PHEIC), and the causal link between the Zika virus and congenital
malformations was confirmed. WHO declared the end of the PHEIC in November of the
same year.

6.) Although cases of Zika virus disease declined from 2017 onwards globally, transmission
persists at low levels in several countries in the Americas and other endemic regions.
Zika Virus is also very harmful for the pregnent women and in pregnency.

 

Intern

Author Since: November 22, 2023